Resources and Development Class 10 Notes | Geography Chapter 1 Class 10 Notes

Ayush Katiyar
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Resources and Development Class 10 Notes

Resources and Development Class 10 Notes

Everything in our Environment that we can use to satisfy Our needs is called Resources and also

✓ Which can be easily available to us.

✓ Which can be affordable to us.

✓ What can be easily accepted by society is actually the term Resource

does human being also a resource?

Yes, human beings are also the essential component of resources,s not the resource because human beings with the help of technology and institutions transform the naturally Occurring resource available in nature into economically usable and acceptable resources.

Types of Resources

Types of Resources Flowchart

Based on Origin

Biotic Resources

These resources are obtained from the biosphere and these resources are living OR formed by the decaying of Life forms.

Examples - Life stocks, flora and fauna, and also coal and petroleum may be considered as biotic resources because they are formed by the decaying of life forms.

Abiotic Resources

These resources are composed of non-living things.

Examples - are soil rocks metals wind, etc.

Based on Exhaustibility OR Limitation Of Use

Renewable Resources

The resources which can be reproduced by physical chemical OR mechanical processes are known as Renewable resources.

The Other name given to renewable resources is Replenshable resource

Examples - Solar energy, wind energy, etc.

Resources Flowchart

Non - Renewable Resources

These resources are formed Through a long - long geological period And cannot be reproduced.

For example - Fossil fuels

Based on the Ownership

Individual Resources

These resources are owned privately by individuals and no one else has any authority over those Resources Like My cycle.

Community Owned Resources

1) These resources are used by all the members of the Community.

2) And are available to all the members of the Community equally.

3) Like community park Society park public park etc.

National Resources

These resources are under the control of a Country or a nation and are accessible to only that country.

But do these resources have any area of use I mean that we can only resources upto only a specific area ??

Yes, the resources up to 12 nautical miles mean 12 to 22 Km from the Coast of any Country that country is a resource.
Examples - Coal, Gold mines kennels railway, etc.

International Resources

These resources are owned or regulated by international institutions Like UNO.

Example - Open sea open sky flight movement etc.

International resources are those resources that are located beyond 200 nautical miles from the Exclusive economic zone belonging to the open sea.

Based on the Status of the Development

Potential Resource

These are those resources that are available in the region but have not been developed properly.

Example - Solar energy in Rajasthan wind Energy in Gujrat and tidal waves in the
Coast of India.

Developed Resource

These resources are those resources that have been fully identified their quantity is been surveyed and their utilization according to the available technology is been used example coal Petroleum.

Stock Resource

These resources are those resources that have the power and the potential to Satisfy human needs but human does not have the required technical knowledge and Technology to use them and therefore is not.
For example -  Hydrogen and oxygen in water can be our rich source of energy we don't know how to
separate them.


These are specific Stock resources for which the appropriate technology and technical information are available but exploration is not started yet for example:- river water for Hyde/ energy in the forest.

These are reserve resources another purpose of Reserve resources is that they can be used in the future to satisfy the future generation's needs.

Development of Resource

Resources are the free gifts of nature but we take them as granted Ouen utilized them overutilization has led to many problems.

Resources Depletion

(1) An equal distribution of resources due to which the society is divided into two rich and poor.

(2) Global ecological Crises like global warming and Ozone depletion.

(3) Therefore after distribution of resources is essential for sustained quality of life and global peace.

Sustainable Development

Sustainable development means development should take place without damaging the environment.

In Other words, we can also say that the present pace of development should not compromise with the needs of future generations.

The concept of sustainable development was first formulated in June 1992 at the first United Nation Conference on the Environment and Development hand in Rio de Janeiro Brazil.

This Summit Supported the Global Forest principle and adopted Agenda 21.

Agenda 21

Agenda 21 is formulated for achieving sustainable development in the 21st century.

The objective of Agenda 21 is to eliminate poverty hunger sickness illiteracy and reduce the deuteration of the environment.

Resource Planning In INDIA

Resource planning means the strategy of Identification and quantification of available resources with their development.

Resource planning for any resource should match the national development goals.

In India the resources are vast but the development is insufficient for that resources.

For Examples -

states like Jharkhand Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in coal and Minerals but lack technological and Institutional support.

Arunachal Pradesh has a huge amount of water resources but lacks infrastructural development.

Rajasthan is well endowed with wind and Solan but has fewer water resources.

Some states like Punjab and Haryana have a poor resource base but they are economically developed.

Process Of Resource Planning

The process of resource planning involves the following steps.
1. Identification of resources across the regions of the country this involves serving mapping qualitative and quantitative Estimation and measurement of the resource.

2. Planning for resource development using appropriate skill technology in an institutional setup.

3- Matching the resource development plans with Overall national Development plans.

India follows the policy of resource planning from the very first five-year plan rightly after independence.

Land Resource

The land is a very important natural resource as it supports natural vegetation wildlife human life Various economic activities lightly transportation and communication systems on land are limited they need to be used with care and concern.

Indian Geographical Area

43% plain land area for Agriculture and Industry.

27% Plateau which is a source of minerals fossil fuels and forests.

30% Mountain which provides riven water and a spot for tourism and Ecological Sports.

Land Use Pattern in India

The use of land is determined by the following factors.

1 - Physical factors like climate soil type topography.
2 - Human factors include population density Cultural traditions and technological capability.

Land Utilisation

In India, the Land is used for the following Purposes:

1 Forest
2 Land not available for cultivation
3 Barren and wasteland
4 Buildings Road Factory etc
5 Uncultivated Land
6 Permanent pastors and grazing Land
7 Land under tree crops and groves
8 Cultivable wasteland left and cultivated for more than five agricultural years

Follow Lands

Fallow is a farming technique in which arable land is left without sowing for one or more vegetative

The goal of the following is to allow the land to recover and store Organic matter.

1. Current fallow less than one year
2. Other than the current fallow between 1-1-05 years

Net Sown Area

This represents the areas in which crops are cultivated more than once during the agricultural year.

The total geographical area of India is 3-28 million square kilometers.

In India, land use data is available only 93-1 . of the total area because land use reporting of North
Eastern states except for Assam and some part of Jammu and Kashmir has not Surged.

Land Degradation & Conservation measures

we, humans, have a tendency to keep everything for granted and use it over and over again we are Simply done with the land.

Human activities have degraded land and also increased the pace of damage to lands caused by natural forces.

Currently, India Has About 130 Million Hectares Of Waste Land

1. It comprises 28% forest degraded areas
2. 56% of water eroded and
3. 10% of wind eroded and the rest
4. 6% is affected by saline and alkaline deposits

Deforestation overgrazing in the expansion of mining and quarrying operations has contributed to land degradation.
Because mining and quarrying cause deep scans on land Minerals possessing as the grinding of limestone for the cement industry and soapstone for the ceramic industry generates a large amount of dust ultimately the dust settles down on the land read auditing watch infiltration into the soil.


1. Afforestation
2. Proper management of grazing lands
3. Discharge industrial waste after treatment
4- Control over mining activities
5- Stabilization of sand dunes
6- Managing wasteland
7. Planting of trees belts also known as shelterbelts

Soil As a Resource

Soil is the most important renewable natural resource but it takes millions of years to form soil up to a free cm in depth.

The important factors of soil formation are

1. Relief
2. Parent rock
3. Climate
4. Vegetation
5. Forces of nature such as
6. Change in temperature
7. Actions of running water
8. Wind and glaciers
9. Activities of decomposers

Classification Of Soil

Alluvial Soil

This is the most widespread soil in India which has been deposited by three important rivers that are of the Himalayan River system.

The Indus the Ganga and the Brahmaputra cover about 45.6% Area.

Due to its high fertility areas having this soil are intensively cultivated and densely populated.


The soil is mostly found in the river valleys of northern plains strips in Gujrat and Rajasthan and in eastern coastal plains in the deltas of peninsular rivers like Mahanadi Godavari Krishna Kaveri.

It is made up of silt sand and Clay rich in nutrients like potash phosphoric acid and lime.

It is suitable for growing wheat sugarcane and Other Carol and Pulse crops

On the basics of age, it can be categorized as Bhangar and Khadan Bhangra is old and Khadar is the new soil.

Black Soil

This is known as Black cotton soil or region soil it covers about 1Gt . of India's total geographical area.


1. Found in the Deccan trapped and is made up of lava flows.

2. Covers the plateau areas of Saurashtra Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh.

3. Made up of extremely fine clayey material and suitable for growing cotton.

4. Rich in nutrients like calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate Potash and lime but is poor in Phosphoric content.

Red and Yellow Soil

✓ The red Colour of this soil is due to the diffusion of iron into crystalline and metamorphic rocks in low rainfall areas of the Deccan Plateau.

✓ Turns yellow in its Hydrated form.

✓ found in Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andra Pradesh  Chhota Nagpur, and Jharkhand.

Laterite Soil

The word Laterite has been derived from Latin words which mean brick.

covers about 7.2% of India's total geographical area.

Develops in areas with high temperatures and heavy rainfall.

Resulting in tense teaching due to heavy rain.


1. This soil has low humus content as the microorganism cannot survive in it
2. It can be cultivated without adequate amounts of manure and chemical fertilizers
3. It is useful for growing coffee tea cashew
4. Mostly found in Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Tamil Nadu Odisha, Andra Pradesh, and Assam.

Desert OR Arid Soil

Covers about 4% of India's total geographical area in some areas common salt is Obtained in it 


1. It is sandy in texture red to brown in color and saline in nature.
2. It lacks humus moisture due to dry climate high temperatures and a faster rate of evaporation.
3. can be useful for cultivation only with a suitable irrigation method.
4. The soil is found in the western part of Rajasthan Northern Gujarat and Southern parts of Haryana.
5. Can be useful for growing Barely wheat cotton Maize millets and pulses.

Soil Erosion & Soil Conservation

Soil erosion is the removal of soil coven washing down to topsoil.

The process of formation and erosion of soil generally go simultaneously there is a balance between the two, however, but because of human disturbance is now unbalanced.

Natural Causes Of Soil Erosion

Wind Erosion

The blowing of the top soil Layer by wind is called wind erosion.

Water Erosion

Erosion of the top layer of soil caused by running water is called water erosion.
Water flowing down over a large area causes the topsoil to be washed away is called sheet erosion.
Gully erosion occurs by water flowing down and makes the land unfit for Cultivation.

Human Causes

Deforestation overgrazing and faulty methods of agriculture are human actions.

Ways to Conserve Soil Erosion

1. Contour pplowing2. Restricting animal grazing
3. Afforestation
4. Development of dams