Power Sharing Class 10 Notes | Civics Chapter 1 Class 10 Notes

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Power Sharing Class 10 Notes

Power Sharing Class 10 Notes

What is Power Sharing

Is it A sharing of the Powers of Government ??
Or it is the sharing of work in the Government ??

Power Sharing Class 10 Notes

1. Well power Sharing comprises both the sharing of powers and. The sharing of work in the government
2. And power sharing is done between the three organs of the state legislative and judiciary.
3. And It is very important for the functioning of democracy.
4. And power sharing helps in the shaping of public policies to handle public demands and also for the proper functioning of the government.
5. To understand how power-sharing handles the demands of the public and democracy here we take the two examples of power Sharing in Belgium and Sri Lanka.


Power Sharing Class 10 Notes

Belgium is a federal state in Western Europe. And interestingly & area wise and in population wise it is smaller than the state of Haryana It shares borders with the Netherlands France Germany and Luxembourg.

The ethnic composition is very very very complex.

Out of the total population of the country

1.59% live the in the Flemish region and speak the Dutch language.
2. Other 40% live in the Wallonia region and speak French.
3. The remaining 1% Speak German.

capital of Belgium is Brussels

In Brussels, 80% of people speak French, And 20% speak Dutch.

Note point

1. The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful And this is the main
cause of the conflict.
2. This made the Dutch-speaking community angry who got the benefit of economic development and
education much later.

Tensions Between The French & Dutch Community

1. The social unfair treatment led to tensions between Dutch and French-speaking communities between 1950 and 1960.
2. Itis tensions were more acute in the capital of Belgium Brussels Because it has a special problem.
3. Duch-speaking people constituted a majority in the country but a minority in the capital.

Accommodation in Belgium

1. The Belgium leaders were Very brilliant and take the right path for the existence of regional
differences and cultural diversities of the country.
2. Belgium 1970 and 1993 the constitution of Belgium was amended four times.

Amendment’s made

1) The no of ministers of Dutch and French-speaking communities will be equal in the central government And for making laws no single Community can not make decisions both have to agree on that.
2) The state government is not below the central government more powers of the Central Government have been given to the state government of the two regions of a community of the country.
3) The capital of Belgium Brussels has a separate government in which both the Dutch and French
speaking people have equal representation.
4) Apart from central and state government community government is elected by the people belonging to one language community the government has the power regarding educational culture and language-related issues.

And this model works best which avoid Conflict between two major communities.

Sri Lanka

Power Sharing Class 10 Notes

1. Sri Lanka is an island nation in the Indian Ocean
2. It is just a few km off the southern coast of Tamilnadu
3. Sri Lanka has a diverse population of about 2 crore people with
74% being Sinhalese
18% Tamil

The main conflict in Sri Lanka

The main conflict was because of These subgroups of Tamil. Sri Lanka has two subgroups of Tamil.

Sri Lankan Tamils

1. Tamil natives of Sri Lanka are called Sri Lankan Tamils.
2. They constitute 13-1. of The Population
3. They live in the north and east of Sri Lanka
4. Most of Sinhala speaking people are Buddhist
5. while most Tamils are Muslims OR Hindus

Indian Tamils

1. The Familiaris who's for fathers came from India as plantation workers during colonial rule and settled in Sri Lanka are called Indian Tamil.
2. They constituted 5% of the population
3. There are about 7% of Christians who are both Tamil and Sinhala

Concept Of Majoritarianism

In simple word, majoritarianism is a misconception in which the majority Community believe that
they can rule a country in which even way it wants by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority.

Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka

1. When Sri Lanka became independent in 1948.
2. The leaders of the Sinhala community establish dominance over the government by their majority.
3. In 1956 an act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language disregarding Tamil.
4. The government follows pan financial policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for University positions government jobs etc.
5. And a new constitution was formed that states shall protect and promote Buddlsm
6. And these government measures gradually increased feelings of depression among Sri Lankan Tamil
7. And the relationship between each Sinhala and Tamil communities became strained over Tamil.

The Struggles of Sri Lankan Tamils

1. Sri Lankan Tamils launch parties and struggle for the recognition of Tamil as an official Language.
2. They demanded regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs.
3. But their demand was repeatedly denied By The 1987 political Organisations like LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Eekam means state.

The conflict Between the two communities soon turns into a civil war

Results of Struggles

1. The civil war resulted in the killing of thousands of people in both communities.
2. The civil war also caused that terrible setback to the social Cultural and Economic life of the country.
3. Many families were forced to leave the country as refugees and lots of people lost their livelihoods.

Need of Power Sharing

There are two different sets of reasons that reflect the need for Power sharing.

Prudential Reasons

1. Its main focus is that power-sharing will bring out better Outcomes.
2. Power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between the two communities on the social groups.
3. Power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of the political Order.
4. Apparently imposing the will of the majority community over the Others may look like an OK and attractive option but in long run, it undermines the unity of the nation.
5. The cruel and unfair use of power by a person on a small group to control a Country or a state (The word used in NCERT is tyranny).
6. Tyranny of the majority is not only operation for the minority community sometimes it begins to ruin
to ruin to majority class itself.

Moral Reasons

1. It focuses on the act of power Sharing as Valuable.
2. Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy.
3. People have a right to be consulted on how they are going to be governed.
4. A legitimate government is one where citizens through participation can acquire a stake in the system.

Forms of Power Sharing

1. In democracy peoples are the king they rule themselves through institutions of self - governance and everyone including the minority has a voice in the shaping of public policy.
2. In a democracy political power should be distributed among as many citizens as possible.

Horizontal Distribution of Power

Power Sharing Class 10 Notes

Power is shared among different Organs of Government.
This arrangement of power sharing is called Horizontal distribution of power.
In this method, different organs of government are placed at the same level and have the same powers.

Advantages of Horizontal Distribution of Power

1. In such a separation of power no one of the organs can exercise unlimited power.
2. Each Organ checks the another.
3. This results in the balance of power among various institutions.
4. And this arrangement is also named a Checks and balances system of power sharing.

Vertical distribution of Power

1. In Vertical distribution of power is shared among different levels of Government.
2. In a Country like India where there are different levels of government the Consitution Clearly lays down the powers of different levels of Government and this is called the vertical distribution of power.
3. Example - Central State and community in this Central have the maximum power than state and then community.

Community government

Power may also be shared among different social groups on the basics of linguistic (language) Groups.
The community government in Belgium is a good example of this arrangement.

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