Print Culture And the Modern World Class 10 Notes | History Chapter 5 Class 10 Notes

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Print Culture And the Modern World Class 10 Notes | History Chapter 5 Class 10 Notes

Print Culture And the Modern World Class 10 Notes

The First Printed Books

China, Japan, and Korea Developed the earliest kind of print technology, which was a system of hand printing.

Books in China were printed with rubbing paper from AD 594 and both sides of the book were folded and stitched.

China for a long time was the major producer of printed materials.

China Starts Conducting Civil Service Examinations for bureaucrats and its textbooks were printed in large numbers.

The print was no longer confined to scholars -Officials. Merchants used print while collecting their trade information.

Reading became a part of leisure activity and rich women started publishing their own poetry and plays.

This new reading mania attracted new technology in the late 19th century, and Western printing techniques and mechanical presses were imported.

Print in Japan

Hand-printing technology was introduced By Buddhist missionaries from China into Japan around AD 768-770.

The Buddhist Diamond Sutra is the oldest Japanese book printed in AD 868 Containing six sheets of tax and woodcut illustrations.

Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices in the late 19th Century, illustrative collections of paintings depicted an elegant urban culture, and libraries and bookstores were packed with hand-printed material of various types - books on women, musical instruments, etc.

Print Culture And the Modern World Class 10 Notes | History Chapter 5 Class 10 Notes

Marco Polo returned to Europe after Exploring China and along with him, he brought the knowledge of woodblock printing and soon the technology spread to other parts of Europe.

Gradually, the demand for books started increasing so, booksellers began Exporting books to many different countries.

But the production of handwritten manuscripts could not satisfy the event.  Increasing demand for books Europe widely started using woodblocks to print textiles, playing cards, and Religious pictures with simple brief texts.

Johann Gutenberg developed the first known printing press in the 1430s.

Gutenberg and the Printing Press

Print Culture And the Modern World Class 10 Notes | History Chapter 5 Class 10 Notes

Gutenberg was an Expert in the art of polishing stones and with this knowledge, he adapted Existing technology to design his innovation.

The first printed book with the new system was the Bible.

with the adaptation of new technology the Existing art of producing books by hand was not entirely displaced.

Books printed for the rich left blank space for decoration on the printed page.

In the hundred years between 1450-1550, printing presses were set up in most countries of Europe.

The Shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to Print Revolution.

The Print Revolution and Its Impact

The print revolution is not only a new way of producing books it transformed the lives of people, changing their relationship to information and knowledge and with institutions and authorities.

A New Reading Public

The cost of books was reduced due to the printing revolution. Markets were flooded with books reaching out to an Ever - growing readership which created a new culture of reading.

Earlier, elites are only permitted to read books, and Common people used to Hear sacred texts read out.

Before the print revolution books were Expensive But, the transition was not as simple as books could only be read by the literate.

Printers started publishing popular ballads and folk tales illustrated with pictures for those who did not read. Oral Culture Entered print and printed material was orally transmitted.

Religious Debates and the Fear of Print

Print introduced a new world of debate and discussion Printed books are not welcomed by Everyone and many were apprehensive of the Effects that the wider circulation of books could have on people's minds.

There was a fear of spreading rebellious reformer Martin Luther wrote Ninety-Five Theses, Cruising many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church his textbook printed copy led to a division within the church and to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.

Print and Dissent

In the 16th Century, Manocchio began to read books available in his locality. He reinterpreted the message of the Bible and formulated a view of God and creation that Enraged the Roman Catholic Church.

Manocchio was hauled up twice and ultimately Executed From 1558, The Roman Church Began to maintain an index of Prohibited Books.

The Reading mania

In most parts of Europe, literacy rates went up, through the 17th and 18th Centuries schools and literacy spread in European countries due to which people wanted the production of more books.

Other forms of reading mainly based on Entertainment began to reach Ordinary readers.

Books were of various sizes, serving many different purposes and interests From the 18th Century, pe periodical press developed which Combined information related to Current Affairs With Entertainment.

Journals and newspapers carried information related to wars, trade, and developments in other places Sir Issac Newton's discoveries were published which influenced scientific-minded Readers.

Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the World

Books were considered a means of spreading progress and Enlightenment by the mid - 18th Century.

According to Louise - Sebastien Mercier, a novelist in 18th Century France said that "The printing press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotism away"

Convinced the power of print in bringing Enlightenment and destroying the basics of despotism "Mercier proclaimed: ' Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world!

Print Culture and the French Revolution

Historians argued that print culture created the conditions for the French Revolution Three types of arguments were put forward.

1. Print popularised the ideas of Enlightenment thinkers. Their writings provided a critical commentary on tradition, superstition, and despotism The writings of Voltaire and Rousseau were read widely: People saw the world through new Eyes, Eyes that were Questioning critical and national.

2. Print created a new culture of dialogue and debate within this public culture, and new ideas of social revolution came into being.

3. By the 1780s there was an Outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty and criticized their morality.

Print helps in spreading ideas. They accepted some ideas and rejected others and interpreted things their way. Print did not directly shape their minds, but it did open up the possibility of thinking differently.

The Nineteenth Century

A large no of new readers among Children, Women, and workers was added to the mass literacy in Europe during the 19th Century.

Children, Women, and Workers

From the late 19th Century, Primary Education became compulsory in 1857, and a children 's press was set up in France devoted to literature for children.

Traditional folk tales were gathered by Grimm Brothers in Germany Rural folk tales acquired a new form.

Women became important as readers as well as writers. Magazines were published Especially dedicated to women as were manholes teaching proper behavior and housekeeping.

In the 19th Century, lending libraries in England became instruments for Educating white-collar workers, artisans, and lower-middle-class people.

Further innovations

Press came to be made out of metal by the late 18th. Printing technology saw a series of further innovations by the 19th Century During that century power-driven cylindrical press was perfected by Richard M, which was particularly used for printing newspapers.

The offset was developed which was capable of printing six colors at a time By the 20th Century electrically operated presses accelerated printing Operations followed by other series of developments.

1. Methods of feeding paper improved

2. Quality of Plates became better

3. Automatic paper reels and Photoelectric controls of the color register were introduced.

India and the World of Print

Manuscripts Before the Age of Print

India is a country rich in the old tradition of handwritten manuscripts _ in Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian as well as in Various vernacular languages These manuscripts were copied on palm leaves on handmade paper.

The production of the manuscript continued well after the introduction of print it is Considered Highly Expensive and fragile.

In Bengal, Students were only taught to write due to which many became literate without Ever actually reading any kind of text.

Print Comes to India

In the mid-16th Century the first printing press came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries Catholic priests printed the 1st Tamil book in 1579 at Cochin and in 1713 the first Malayalam book was printed by them.

The English press grew Quite late in India Even though the English East India Company began to import presses from the late 17th-century weekly magazine named the "Dangal Gazette" which was edited by James Augustus Hickey.

Advertisements were published by Hickey and he also published a lot of Gossip about the company's senior officials in India By the close of the 18th Century, a no of newspapers and Journals appeared in print.

Religious Reform and Public Debates

Religious issues became intense in the Early 19th Century - People Started Criticizing Existing practices and campaigning for Reform, while others countered the arguments of reformers.

Printed tracts and newspapers spread new ideas and shaped the nature of the debate New ideas Emerged and intense controversies erupted between social and religious reformers and the Hindu Orthodoxy Ouen on matters like widow immolation, priesthood, and idolatry.

In 1821 Rammohun Roy Published the Sambat Kaumudi. In 1822, two Persian newspapers were published, Jahan Nama and Shamsul Akhbar The Same year a Gujarati newspaper, the Bombay Samachar, was Established.

Print Encouraged the reading of religious texts, among Hindus, Especially in the Vernacular languages Religious texts reached a very wide Uncle of people, Encouraging discussions debates, and controversies within and among different religions. Newspapers Conveyed Everything.

New Forms of Publication

New Kinds of writing were introduced as more and more people got interested in reading in Europe the novel a literary firm was developed to cater to the needs of people which Aauined indian forms and styles.

New visual culture took shape by the End of the 19th Century cheap calendars were available in the bazaar which can be bought Even by the poor to decorate the walls of their homes on places of work.

Women and Print

Women 's Reading increased Enormously in middle-class homes. Schools were set up in Cities for women. Journals also started carrying writings by women and Explaining why women should be Educated.

But Conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widowed, and Muslims feared that Educated women would be corrupted by reading Urdu Romances.

Social reforms and novels created a great interest in women 's lives and Emotions. In the Early 20th Century journals , written and Edited by women, became Extremely popular.

Print and the Poor People

Cheap books were bought at markets. Public libraries were set up mostly located in cities and towns.

In the late 19th Century , Caste Discrimination started coming up in many printed tracts and Essays.

Factory workers lacked the Education to write much about their Experience in 1938 Kashibaba published Clnhote aur Bada Ke sawal in 1938 to show the links between caste and class Exploitation . in the 1930s Bangalore Cotton millworks set up libraries to Educate themselves.

Print and censorship

Censorship was not a concern under the East India Company.

The Calcutta Supreme Court passed certain regulations to control press freedom in the 1835s.

Thomas Macaulay formulated new rules that restored the Earlier freedom The freedom of the press changed after the revolt of 1857.

In 1878 , the Vernacular Press Act was passed/modeled on the Irish Press laws, which provided the government with Extensive rights to censor reports and Editorials in the vernacular press.

The government started keeping track of the vernacular newspapers. Nationalist newspapers grew not all Over India.

In 1907 Punjab revolutionaries were deported, Balgangadhar Tilak wrote with Great sympathy about them in his Kesari which led to his imprisonment in 1908.