Making of a Global World Class 10 Notes | History Chapter 3 Class 10 Notes

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Making of a Global World Class 10 Notes

Making of a Global World Class 10 Notes


Globalization refers to integrating sum up) national economies with global economies. This actually increases the value of the national marketplace & also helps the country's economy to develop better.

The History of the globe/nation is a treatment of all the events that have led to this drastic social and economic change.

Globalization - Define as an economic system that is associated with the free movement of tech, goods, people, and Ideas all across the world.

This term is normally used to describe the rapidly increasing interdependence of World Cultures, populations, and their growing economies This is generally brought by Cross - trade btw different countries across world.

The Pre Modern

Globalisation is a recent term that has emerged since the last 504 But The making of the global world has a long history - of trade, migration, people in search of work, movement of capital etc.

From ancient times travellers , traders, priests and pilgrims travelled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity and spiritual fulfilment.

As early as 3000 BCE an active coastal trade linked the Indus Valley Civilisations with present-day West Asia.

Silk routes

Silk routes are a good example of a good and vibrant Pre-modern world and Cultural links between different countries.

Several silk routes have been identified by historians overland and by the seas Connecting various regions of Asia and linking Asia with Europe and Northern Africa.

In the Exchange of textiles and species from India, precious metals - gold , Silver flowed from Europe to Asia.

Food travels: Spaghetti and Potato

Food Offers many Examples of long-distance cultural Exchange. New crops were introduced by traders and travellers.

Foodstuff such as noodles travelled from China to become spaghetti.

Our ancestors were not familiar with Common foods such as potatoes soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies sweet potatoes, and so on About 5 Centuries ago many of Our common foods came from America's original inhabitants - The American Indians.

Conquest, Disease and Trade

The Indian Ocean , for centuries before had known a bustling trade, with goods, people knowledge Customs etc.

The entry of Europeans Helped in redirecting these flows towards Europe America's vast land and Abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.

The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonisation of America were decisively underway by the mid-sixteenth century.

European's most powerful weapon is Germs such as that smallpox that they carried on their person It proved to be a deadly killer.

Until well into the Eighteenth century, China and India were among the world's richest countries However from the fifteenth Century, China was said to have restricted overseas contacts and retreated into isolation Europe now emerged as the centre of world trade.

The Nineteenth Century ( 1815-1914)

In the 19th Century, Economic, Political, Social , Cultural and Technological factors interacted in Complex ways to transform societies and reshape External relations.

Three flows on movements were Identified by economists.

1. The first flow of trade was Goods. Example Cloth or Wheat.

2. The second flow of labours - Migration of people for employment.

3. The third was Capital - for short-term on long-term investments over long distances.

The World Economy Takes Shape

In the 19th Century Self - Sufficiency in food meant lower living standards and conflict in Britain Happend because of population growth from the late 18th Century.

Corn laws were imposed which means restrictions on the import of Conn British agriculture was unable to compete with imports and vast areas of land were left Uncultivated. So thousands of men and women flocked to the cities on migrated overseas.

In Britain, food prices fell in the mid 19th Century. Industrial Growth led to Higher incomes and more food imports in order to fulfil British Demand, in Eastern Europe, Russia, America and Australia lands were cleaned to expand food production .

In Order to manage the linking of railways to terms of finance and terms of labour people Emigrated from Europe to America and Australia in the 19th Century.

By 1890, A Global Agricultural Economy had taken Shape, Adapting to complex changes in labour movement patterns, capital flows, ecologies and technology.

In west Punjab, The British Indian government built a network of irrigation canals to transform semi-desert wastes into fertile agricultural lands to grow wheat and Cotton for Export Even the cultivation of Cotton, Expanded worldwide to feed British textile mills.

Role of Technology

Some of the important inventions in the field of technology are the railways, steamships the telegraph which transformed the 19th-century world But technological advances were often the result of larger social, political and Economic factors.

For Example - Colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport: faster railways and all helped to move food more cheaply and quickly from faraway farms to final markets.

Animals were also shipped live from America to Europe till the 1870s Meat was considered as a luxury.

Late 19th-century Colonialism

Trade flourished and Markets expanded in the late nineteenth Century But it has a darker side too as in many parts of the world the expansion of trade and a closer relationship with the world economy meant loss of freedoms and livelihoods.

In 1885 the big European powers met in Berlin to complete the carving up of Africa between them Brattain and France made vast additions to their overseas territories Belgium and Germany became new Colonial powers.

Rinderpest, or the cattle Plague

In Africa in the 1890s , the fast-spreading disease of cattle plague impacted people's livelihoods and the Local Economy.

Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population in the late 19th Century Europeans were Attracted to Africa due to its vast resources of land and minerals.

Europeans came to Africa hoping to establish plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for export to Europe. But there was an unexpected problem - A shortage of labour willing to work for wages.

Inheritance laws were changed and according to the new one, only one member of a family was allowed to inherit the land.

In the late 1880s, Rinderpest arrived in Africa carried by infected cattle imported from the British area to feed the Italian soldiers Eritrea in Africa.

The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods.

Indentured labour Migration from India

In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts and most of them came from the present-day regions of UP, Bihar, central India and Tamil Nadu.

Indian indentured migrants' main destinations were the Caribbean islands.

Workers recruited for tea plantations in Assam 19th Century indenture has been described as a " new system of Slavery ".

Indian Trade Colonialism and the Global System

Cotton from India was exposed to Europe. In Britain, tariffs were imposed on cloth imports consequently , the inflow of fine Indian cotton began to decline Over the 19th Century, British manufacturers flooded the Indian market.

India played a crucial role in the late 19th Century world Economy Britain's trade surplus in India also helped pay the so-called Home charges that included private remittances , interest payments, etc

The Inter-War Economy

The first world war Clam -18) was fought in Europe, but its impact was felt around the world During this period the world Experienced widespread Economic and political instability and other catastrophic war.

Wartime transformations

The first world war was fought between the allies Britain France and Russia later joined by the US and the Central Powers Germany Austria Hungary and Ottoman Turkey.

The war lasted for more than 4 Years. It was considered as first industrial war which saw the use of machine guns , tanks, aircraft, chemical weapons etc on a massive scale.

During the war, industries were restructured to produce war-related goods Britain borrowed large sums of money from US banks as well as the US public transforming the US from Being an international debtor to an international creditor.

Post-war Recovery

Britain worlds leading economy faced a prolonged crisis industries Had developed in India and Japan while Britain was preoccupied with the war after the war Britain Found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market

At the end of the war, Britain was burdened with huge external debts.

The great depression

The period of Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid-1930s, most parts of the world experienced catastrophic declines in production, Employment, incomes and trade.

The most affected areas were agricultural regions and communities Combination of several factors led to the Depression.

(1) The first-factor agricultural Overproduction

(2) In mid - the 1920s, many Countries financed their investment through loans from the us

The rest of the world is Affected by the withdrawal of US Loans in different ways

India and the great depression

Indian trade is immediately affected by depression.

The prices of agriculture fell sharply but still, colonial gout. refused to reduce revenue demands.

In these depression years, India became an Exporter of precious metals notably gold.

India was thus seething with wrest when Mahatma Gandhi launched the Civil Disobedience movement at the height of the depression.

Rebuilding a World economy the Postwar-Era

Two decades after the end of the first world war the second world war broke out it was found between the Axis power mainly nazi Germany Japan and Italy and allies Britain France and the Soviet Union and the US the war continue for six-year over the land sea and air.

The was caused an immersed amount of Economic devastation and Social disruption.

Postwar reconstruction was shaped by two crucial influences The first one is that the US emerged as the dominant Economic political and military power in the Western world.

The Second was the dominance of the Soviet Union.

Post-war settlement and the Bretton Woods institutions

Two key lessons were drawn out from the interwar economic experience.

1. Mass production cannot be sustained without mass Communication.

2. Countries should have economic links with the whole world.

The Bretton Woods Conference established the international monetary fund (IMF) To deal with External Surplus.

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) was set up to finance post-war construction.

Both institutions start working in 1947.

The early post-war years were the era of Big growth in trade and income was inaugurated by Bretton Woods for the Western industrial nations and Japan during this decade technology and enterprise were spread worldwide.

Decolonisation and independence

After the end of the second world war, large parts of the world were still under European Colonial rule.

The IMF and World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of industrial countries.

In the late 1950s The IMF and World Bank Shifs their attention towards developing countries most of them were not benefit.

They Organised as a group - The Group 77 OR G-77 and demanded a new international Economic Order ( NIEO).

NIEO - system that would give them real control over their natural resources more development assistance etc.

End of Bretton woods And the Beginning of Globalisation

The US finance and competitive strength of Weak due to the rising cost of its overseas environment from 1960 to the mid-1970s the international finance system also changed And the thing industrial world was also hit by unemployment.

MNCs began to shift their production to low-wage Asian countries China became an attractive destination for investment by foreign MNCs.

The world economic geography has been transformed as countries such as India China and Brazil have undergone a rapid economic transformation.