Development Class 10 Notes | Economics Chapter 1 Class 10 Notes

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Development Class 10 Notes

Development Class 10 Notes


All of us want to improve whether in our studies or it is in living conditions or lifestyle.

So if I say that all of us want to develop so it is not wrong.

But all of us have different perspectives of development from person to person state to state country to country region to region have different developmental goals.

Meaning of Development

Development applies to the AllRound Development of a Country.

I am not talking only about the lifestyle of the people on the average income of the people I am talking about the development of such as freedom participative involvement economic equality security life with dignity and all of us have a good standard of living.

Different People and different development goals

Development is diversified and sometimes conflicting

This Shows The two Aspects of Development

(1) Different people can have different developmental goals.

(2) Development for one may not be the development for another it may be got destructive for another.

Ex. - The construction of dams for electricity requirements is necessary but the Construction of dams displaces the local Community submerges forest land and the whole ecological setup may be completely destroyed so, It is a development for the country but not the development of the environment and for the people living in that area.

Income And Other Goals

Yeah of course income is Considered the most important component of development.

As it can buy materialistic Things and services

People also seek equal treatment, freedom education security respect for their jobs peace and a pollution-free environment, and so on.

Hence for development, people look at mixed goals which include both economic as well as lifestyle development.

National Development

The people see different goals and motives for national development may vary.

(1) Like farmers of India want to develop in a particular way

(2) Where the traders of India want to develop in another way

(3) But under National development priority is given to those goals which Benefit a large number of people.

Comparison of the Countries OR States

On the basics of development, the countries are classified into.

(1) Developed Country

(2) Underdeveloped

(3) Developing

Through National Income

National income is the income of all the people of the country over some time And is also known as the total income of the country.

Countries with higher total incomes are Considered to be develop

Example -  USA UK and Japan

however, this is not a useful measure as countries have different populations, and Comparing total income will not state the average amount earned by a person.

Comparison Through Per Capita Income

✓ As compared to the national income per capita income gives a better Comparison.

✓ Per capita income is calculated by dividing the total income of the country by its total Population.

Per Capital Income Formula

✓ Also called as Average income of the country.

Disadvantages of Per Capita Income Comparison

The drawback of per capita income as it hides disparities when a small section of people has a very high income the average income also gets high and does not give a proper idea about the Social Situation.

World Bank Report on Per Capita Income

World Bank Publishes World Developmental Report To compare nations on the basis of per capita income.

The bank has classified the countries as follows:

1) Countries with per capita income of USD $12056 per annum and Above in 2017 are term as rich countries

2) Countries with per capita income of USD $95S per annum and Above in 2017 are termed as low-Income Countries.

In 2017 India's per capita income was only about USD $1820.

Other criteria than income

Besides the average income and the total Income of the person, Other attributes should also be taken.

To understand this let's take a comparative analysis of three states Haryana, Kerala, and, Bihar from various aspects.

When we take the comparative analysis of various aspects of the development we can conclude.

(1) Per capita income is highest in Haryana and lowest in Bihar this also indicates that employment status and scope of earning are quite less in Bihar.

(2) Infant mortality rate is lowest in Kerala and highest in Bihar high Infant mortality rate implies that the healthcare facility is poor in Bihar.

(3) Literacy rate is highest in Kerala and lowest in Bihar.

(4) Net attendance ratio is highest in Kerala and lowest in Bihar.

These aspects indicate that per capita income is not the best criterion to decide development.

But other basis and Quality of Life also matter much and must be properly Counted for Development.

Public facilities

No matter how much you earn money but it cannot buy a pollution-free environment for protection from diseases.

So public facilities like primary and secondary school healthcare facilities cleanliness are also important for living.

Public Distribution System

In Tamil Nadu, the public distribution system for the supply of food grains to poor people in rural areas is very good and well-functioning whereas.

In Jharkhand, the PDS system is not well functioning and does not provide food grains.

In Tamilnadu, 75% of the people living in rural areas use ration shops whereas in Jharkhand Only 8% of the Munter people are able to do so.

Body mass index BMI

Nutrition is another important aspect of development.

Internationally a standard known as the body mass Index is used to determine.

Whether an adult person is undernourished OR Not.

If we divide the weight of the person by the Square of his or her height we get a ratio that is called the BMI.

If the BMI of an Adult person is below 18.5 the person is undernourished /Over 25 person is Overweight.

Human Development Report

The Human Development Report is the best method to measure development and is published by UNDP :- United Nations Development Programme.

And is one of the best-ever known methods to measure development.

The report comprises and compares countries based on three criteria namely:

(1) Living standard (Per capita income)

(2) Health Status (LIFE expectancy)

(3) Educational level of the people (Literacy rate and enrollment ratio)

India occupies 130 ranks In the HDR 2018

And in HDR 2020 HDI rank of India is dropped to 131

Sustainability of Development

Economic development in developed countries and developing countries has been attained at the cost of natural resources and the Environment.

For Example, excessive mining of iron gold silver, or cold extraction of Crude which lead to the depletion of the stock of this resource.

Problems of water and air pollution are affecting the lives of people and will affect the lives of future generations also.

Environmental degradation and sustainable development

Our mismanagement of natural resources will result in environmental Degradation.

That is not confined to national OR State boundaries.

Now the focus is on Sustainable development which permits us to reuse natural Resources Carefully.

Sustainable Development is a new term that is associated with the balanced use of natural resources at a minimum level so that future generations can use it.


The Development Class 10 Notes for Economics Chapter 1 provide a detailed understanding of the concept of economic development. The notes are designed to help students learn about the meaning and indicators of development, as well as the various approaches to development. The notes cover the key economic, social, and environmental factors that influence development, and highlight the importance of sustainable development. The notes also discuss the challenges faced by developing countries and the strategies that can be employed to achieve sustainable development.

The notes are written in an easy-to-understand language and are structured to provide a comprehensive overview of the topic. They are based on the latest syllabus and exam pattern and are designed to help students prepare for their exams. The notes include important definitions, key concepts, and examples to help students grasp the material. Overall, these notes provide a valuable resource for students studying economics at the class 10 level, and are an essential tool for success in their exams.