Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes | History Chapter 2 Class 10 Notes

Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes | History Chapter 2 Class 10 Notes. On this page, you can view notes for Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes | History Chapter 2 Class 10 Notes.

Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes

Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes


India, the growth of modern nationalism is connected to the anti-colonial movement people started discovering their unity in the process of struggle with colonialism the sense of being oppressed under colonial power was common through different classes.

The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi's leadership tries to unite these groups together within one movement and to destroy the colonial rule in India.

The first world war Khilafat and the non-cooperation movement

The first world war created a new economic and political situation

It led to a huge increase in defense expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: custom Duties were raised and income tax was introduced.

The villages of India were called upon to supply soldiers and force recruitment C. A. process by which the colonial state forced people to join the army in rural areas caused widespread anger.

And at the same time in 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India resulting in an acute shortage of food this was accompanied by an influenza epidemic.

According to the census of 1921 - 13 million, people died as a result of the epidemic and because of the shortage of food at this stage of extreme hardship for people a new leader appeared and suggested a new mode of struggle for them.

The idea of Satyagraha

As you know that Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 191s he returned from South Africa where he had successfully fought the racist regime with a novel method of mass agitation which he called Satyagraha.

The idea of Satyagraha forces the power of truth and the need to search for truth.

It suggested that if the cause was true if the struggle was against injustice, then the physical force was not necessary to fight the oppression

Without being aggressive Satyagraha could win the battle through non-violence.

In 1916 Gandhi traveled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the Oppressive plantation system.

Then in 1917, he organized a Satyagraha to support the peasant of the Kheda district of Gujrat.

In 1918 mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organize a Satyagraha movement among cotton mill workers

The Rowlatt Act

The Rowlatt Act in 1919 was passed through the imperial legislative council despite the opposition of the Indian members.

The Rowlett Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities " According to this act the political prisoner could be imprisoned for two years without any court trial.

Gandhiji decided to try to oppose it with Satyagraha.

Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against each unjust law which would start with the hartal on 6 April.

Rallies were organized in various cities workers went on strike in railway workshops and shops closed down.

Alarmed by popular upsurge.

The British Administrator Decided to clamp down on Nationalists.

Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar and Mahatma Gandhi was banned from entering Delhi.

On 10 April the police in Amritsar fine upon a peaceful procession provoking widespread attacks on banks post offices and railway stations.

Seeing this Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.

This all leads us to the Black Day of Indian History the infamous Jahan wake bagh Massacre.

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

On 13 April the infamous Jallianwala Bagh incident took place.

On that day a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh.

Some came to protest against the government's new repressive measures.

Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi Fair.

Being outside the city many villagers were unaware of the martial law that has been imposed.

General Dyer entered the area block the exit And Order the Souders Extra points a maximum of the Souders that were firing upon the Indian crowd were maximum Indian) started open firing upon the crowd killing Hundreds of people.

Dyer declared that it was to produce a moral effect on the minds of Satyagrahi a feeling of terror.

As the news spread crowd took to the street in many Northern Indian towns there were strikes clashes with the police, attains on government buildings, etc.

The government responded with brutal repression seeking to humiliate and terrorize people The satyagraha was forced to rub their noses on the ground crawl on streets and do Salam to all sahibs.

Villages were bombed seeking violence spread Mahatma Gandhi's call for the movement [The non - cooperation movement which was started on 6th April 1919 )

Launching More Basic Movement

Mahatma Gandhi now felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India.

But he was containing that no such movement could be organized without bringing the Hindus and Muslims close together.

One way of doing this he felt was to take up the Khilafat issue.

The first world war ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey.

The harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on Ottoman Empire the spiritual head of the Islamic world The Khalifa.

To defend the Khalifa's temporal powers Khalifat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.

Muslim leaders like brothers Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi the possibility of a United mass action on the issue.

Gandhi saw this opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified National movement.

At the Calcutta session of Congress in September 1920 he conveyance leaders to start non - a cooperation movement in the support of Khilafat as well as Swaraj.

Differing stands within the movement

In January 1921 Non - the Cooperation Khilafat movement started.

Various social groups participated in the movement with their own specific aspirations.

This movement started with middle-class participation in the city's student teacher left government school lawyer left court.

The effect of the non-cooperation movement on the economic front was dramatic that people rejected foreign clothes and goods as a result the production of Indian textile mills and hand100ms wind up.

Non-cooperation Movement Slow Down

The movement Gradually slows Down for vanity of Reasons.

(1) Khadi clothes were not suitable for poor people because they are expensive.

(2) No Alternative institutions were set up.

(3) Therefore, teachers and students finally had to resume their studies and jobs in Govt. Schools.

(4) Lawyers join back in gout counts.

From the cities, the non - cooperation movement spread to the countryside.

In Awadh the peasant movement developed under the leadership of Baba Ramchandra.

The peasant movement demanded a reduction of revenue and abolition of Beggars (work without payment) and a social boycott of oppressive landlords.

Interpretation of Swaraj by tribal peasants

Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of Swaraj in another way.

They Thought that Gandhi had declared that no tax is paid and the land was to be Redistributed Among the poor.

In the Gruden hills of Andra - Pradesh Gorilla movement spread under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju inspired by the non - cooperation movement.

Raju talked about the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi and other people wearing Khadi and giving up drinking according to Gandhian ideas they attack the police section attempted to kill British officials and carried on warfare for achieving Swaraj?

Raju was captured and Executed in 1924 and gradually he become a folk hero.

Swaraj in the plantations

For plantation workers in Assam, freedom means the right to move freely in and out of the areas confined by the inland emigration act.

When they heard of the noncooperation movement, they left the plantation and heated home but they never reached their destination and were caught by the police and brutally beaten.

After all this, the time to towards civil Disobedience has come Let's study this.

Towards Civil Disobedience

Mahatma Gandhi in February 1422 decided to roll back the Non-cooperation movement.

The Chani - Chani incident occurred at Chani - Chaura in Gorakhpur district of United Provision on 4th Feb 1922.

A peaceful demonstration in the Bazaar turns into a violent clash with the police leading to the death of three civilians and 22 -23 policemen.

Different view’s Within the Congress

Government of India Acts 1919:-
Allows Indian members to participate in elections.

Due to this, the Congress panty is divided into two strands
C) some wanted to participate in elections like CR Das, Motilal Nehru
C) And some wanted full Independence. like Subash Chandra Bose.

Formation of Simon Commission

Simon Commission is formed and constituted under John Simon.

Its main objective was to review the constitutional system functioning in India and suggest changes.

When this commission arrived in India in 1928 it was greeted with the slogan Simon go back all parties participated in the demonstrations.

Demand of Purna Swaraj

In October 1929 Lord Irwin announced a certain offer of Dominion status for India.

Dominion status means that the British left India and India will be ruled by the Indian people. but the British administration will make all policies and all the important decisions for India. like army expansions and trade.

Mahatma Gandhi accepted this proposal and went for a second round table conference and when Nehru proposed that in Dec 192A many Congress leaders don't agree and demanded purna swaraj and it is decided that India will not accept Dominion status and fight for purna swaraj.

And this is also decided in the Lahore session that whenever India will Get Freedom 26 Jan will be celebrated as Independence Day.

The Salt March And The Civil Disobedience Movement

Stowey and Stowey Mahatma Gandhi understand that salt is a very powerful weapon that can unite all Indians together.

Gandhi write a letter to Lord Irwin on 31 January 1930 and purposed some of their demands if their demands are not completed by 11th March so Gandhi will start the Gull Disobedience movement. Irwin Rejected Demands.

Gandhi along with his followers started Salt March from Sabarmati ashram on 12th March to Dandi which is a coastal area in Gujrat.

Gandhi reached Dandi on 6 April 1930 and disobey the salt law and marking the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement.

As the movement spread

(1) Foreign clothes were boycotted
(2) Peasants refuse to pay revenue and ChauHidani taxes
(3) Village officials resign
(4) In many places people violated Forest laws too Wooried by the ongoing movement the Colonial Govt began arresting the Congress leaders.

Calling off the movement

The arrest of Congress leaders leads to violent clashes in many places.

When Abdul Graffam Khan a devoted disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested in April 1930 Angry crowd demonstrated in the street of Peshwas.

A month later Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested.

The industrial workers attacked the police post municipal buildings law counts and railway stations.

Frightened govt. responded with the policy of brutal repression peaceful Satyagraha was Attacked women and children were beaten about 100K people were arrested.

In such a situation Gandhi called for the movement and Enter into a pact with Irwin on S March 1931 by the pact Gandhi get ready to palpate in the second round table conference.

Gandhi went to London for the round table conference in Dec 1931 but the discussion was of no use.

Returning to India he find that Congress had been declared Illegal Graffam Khan and Nehru were both one jail

Gandhi decided to relaunch the movement continued for a tear and lost momentum by the Year 1934.

Sense of collective belonging

The nationalist movement is correct when people belonging to different religions and communities begin to develop a sense of collective belonging Ness.

(1) The identity of a nation is most often symbolized in a figure in the image of Bharat Mata was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870 when he wrote Vande Mataram for our motherland.

(2) Indian Folk Song and sung by wandering poets played an important role in making the idea of nationalism.

(3) During the Swadeshi movement the tricolor flag was designed in Bengal it has eight lotuses representing eight provisions of British India and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims.