Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes | Geography Chapter 5 Class 10 Notes

Ayush Katiyar
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Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes | Geography Chapter 5 Class 10 Notes. On this page, you can view notes for Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 | Geography Chapter 5 Notes Class 10.

Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

What is Mineral?

The mineral is defined as a "Homogenous" naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure they are found in varied forms in nature ranging from the most intricate diamond to the softest tale.

Mode of occurrence of Minerals

  • Minerals are usually found in " Orcs " The term One is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other Elements minerals generally occur in the following forms
  • In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the Cracks, Crevices, faults, OR Joints
  • In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals Occur in beds OR layers
  • The decomposition of surface rocks and the removal of soluble constituents also form the minerals
  • Minerals also occur as alluvial deposits in Sands of Kelly floors and the base of hills
  • The ocean waters contain vast Quantities of minerals

classification of minerals

Ferrous Minerals

Ferrous minerals account for about three-fourths of the total value of the Production of metallic minerals.

Iron Ore

  1. India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of Iron One.
  2. Magnetite is the finest iron with a very high iron content of up to 70% It has Excellent magnetic Qualities.
  3. Hematite is the most important industrial iron Orc It contains 50+0 60% Iron.

The major iron Ore belts in India are :

Odisha - Jharkhand belt - High Grade Hamatitc One is found in Badampahan mines of Odisha, And in the adjoining Singhbhum district of Jharkhand haematite iron one is mined in Gua.

Dung - Bastar - Chandrapur belt - Lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra very high grade haematites are found in the famous Balladeat range of hills in the Bastar District of Chhattisgarh Iron from these mines is Exported to Japan and South Korea via Visakhapatnam port.

Bakari - Chitradurga - ChikkamangaluruTumKuru belt - Karnataka has the largest reserves of iron Ore They are loot Export units and are known to be one of the largest in the world.

Maharashtra - Goa Belt - includes the state of Goa and the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. Though the orcs are not of very high quality but can be efficiently used.


  1. It is mainly used in the manufacturing of Stell and freo - manganese alloy
  2. Nearly 10 mg of manganese require to manufacture 1 tonne of steel.
  3. Also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides, and paints.
  4. India Rank 5th in the world in the production of manganese and Odisha is the largest producer of manganese in India.

Non-ferrous Minerals

Minerals that do not contain iron are called non Ferrous minerals India has only a few reserves of them These include copper, bauxite, lead , Zinc, and Gold These minerals play a vital role in a number of metallurgical Engineering and Electrical industries.


  1. Malleable, ductile, and a Good Conductor of Heat and Electricity.
  2. Used in Electrical cable manufacturing, Electronics, and chemical industries.
  3. The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh, the Khatri mines in Rajasthan, and the Singh Bum district of Jharkhand are leading producers of copper.


  1. Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in Aluminium. silicates
  2. Aluminium is Obtained from bauxite. Aluminium has good conductivity and Great malleability.
  3. Mainly found in the Amarkantak plate. Matkal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur - Katni.

Non-Metallic Minerals


  1. MICA is a mineral made up of a series of Plates on leaves . It can be Clear, Black, Green cried Yellow OR brown.
  2. Mica is the most indispensable mineral used in the electric and Electronic industries.
  3. It has Excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to High Voltage.
  4. Mica deposits are found on the northern Edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau.

Rock minerals

  1. Limestone is found in rocks composed of calcium carbonates OR calcium and magnesium carbonates.
  2. It is the basic raw material for the cement industry and Essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

Conservation of Minerals

Minerals are nonrenewable resources. It takes 1000 of years for the formation and concentration of minerals. Continued Extraction of one leads to the depletion of minerals. So it's important to take the necessary steps so that mineral resources can be used in a planned and sustainable manner.

Energy Resources

Energy resources can be classified as:

Conventional Sources: Includes firewood, cattle dung Cake , Coal, Petroleum, natural gas and Electricity.

(Non - Renewable)

Nonconventional Sources: Includes Solar, wind, tidal, Geothermal, biogas and Atomic Energy


Conventional sources of energy


  1. Most abundantly available fossil fuel.
  2. Used in power generation, to supply Energy to the industry as well as for domestic needs.
  3. Lignite is a low-grade brown coal , which is soft with high moisture content.
  4. The bituminous coal has been buried deep and subjected to increased temp.
  5. Anthracite Highest Quality Hard coat.
  6. Jharia, Raniganj, and Bokaro are important coalfields.


  1. Also known as mineral Oil and liquid Gold It is the second-highest Energy source used in the form of diesel, petrol, kerosene, etc.
  2. The first oil field in India was discovered in Assam in 1867.
  3. Mumbai Produces a High amount of about 63% of India's petroleum . Gujrat produces 18% and Assam 16%.
  4. Ankelashwar is the most important 011 field in Gujrat.

Natural Gas

Natural Gas is an important clean Energy resource. It is considered an Environment - friendly fuel.

The power and fertilizer industries are the key users of natural Gas.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is Used in Vehicles to replace liquid fuels.

Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna -Godavari basin.


Electricity is generated mainly in 2 ways

  1. By running water which drives hydro turbines to Generate Hydro Electricity. It is a Renewable resource of Energy India has a no. of multi-purpose projects like the Bhakna Nangal Damodar Valley Corporation.
  2. Burning Other fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural Gas to drive turbines to produce Thermal power uses non-renewable fossil fuels for Generating Electricity.

Non-conventional sources of energy

Renewable sources of energy like Solan, wind, tide, biomass and Energy from waste material are called NonConventional Energy Sources.

Nuclear or Atomic energy

Nuclear Energy is obtained by altering the structure of atoms. Uranium and Thorium are used for generating atomic OR nuclear power.

Solar Energy

Solar energy is produced by the Sun's light. Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity.

Wind power

Wind Energy or Power is Used to Generate Electricity. Wind turbines are used for this purpose The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagercoil to Madurai.


Biogas is naturally produced from the decomposition of Organic waste Biogas is the most efficient use for cattle dung It improves the Quality of manure.

Tidal energy

It is a form of Hydropower that convents the Energy obtained from tides into useful forms of Energy mainly Electricity in India's Gulf of Kambhat, Gulf of Kachchh in Gujrat , and Sunderban Regions of WB provide ideal conditions for utilising Tidal Energy.

Geothermal energy

When heat and Electricity are produced by using heat from the interior of the Earth it is known as Geothermal Energy.

In India Parvati Valley in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley, Ladakh.

Conservation of energy resources

Every Sector of the national Economy - agriculture, industry, transport, Commercial and domestic needs inputs of Energy.

There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path for energy development Here are some ways.

Using public transport systems instead of individual Vehicles.

Switching off electricity when not in use.

Using power-saving devices.

Using non - conventional sources of Energy.