Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes | Geography Chapter 2 Class 10 Notes

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Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes

Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes

Conservation of forest and wildlife in India

  • Conservation of wildlife population and forestry has become essential.
  • It preserves the ecological diversity and our life support systems like - water, air, and soil.
  • Also preserves the growth of species and breeding.

Methods of conservation

In the 1960s 1970s Conservationists demanded a national wildlife protection program.

For the Conservation of forests in India government has taken many steps. Some of these are discussed below: -

Wildlife protection act

  • The Indian wildlife protection act was implemented in 1972.

  • The main motive of the program was to protect the remaining population of certain endangered species by banning hunting and restricting trade in wildlife.

  • Subsequently, central and many state governments established national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.

  • The central government also announced several projects for protecting animals that were gravely threatened Including the tiger , one-horned rhinoceros, and the Kashmir hangul crocodiles . more recently the Indian elephant, great Indian bustard, and Snow leopard.

  • The conservation projects are now focusing on biodiversity rather than on a few of its components even insects are beginning to find a place in conservation planning.

  • In the notification under the Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986 Several Butterflies moths, beetles, and one dragonfly have been added to the list.

  • In 1991 for the first time, plants were also added to the list.

Types and distribution of forest and wildlife resources

Even if we want to conserve our vast forests and wildlife resources are either owned on managed by the government by the Forest Department.

These classified forests under the following categories.

(1) Reserve Forest

  • More than half of the total forest land has been declared Reserved forests.
  • Reserved forests are regarded as the most valuable as far as the Conservation of forests and wildlife resources are connected.

(2) Protected Forest

  • Almost one-third of the total forest area is protected forests Declared by the Forest Department
  • This land is protected from any further depletion.

(3) Unclassed Forest

These are other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities.

Some more points

  • Reserved and protected forests are also referred to as permanent forests.

  • Madhya Pradesh has the largest area under permanent forests constituting 75% of the total Area.

  • Jammu & Kashmir, Andra Pradesh , Uttrakhand, Kerala , Tamil Nadu , West Bengal, and Maharashtra have a large % of Reserved forests.

  • Whereas Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh Odisha, and Rajasthan have the bulk of them.

  • All Northeastern states have a very high % of their forest under the unclasscd Sections managed by the local communities.

Community and conservation

  • We often ignore that in India forests are also home to some traditional communities. which are struggling to conserve these habitats along with Government.

  • In Sariska reserve in Rajasthan villagers, themselves are protecting habitats and Explicitly rejecting the government's involvement

  • The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwan district of Rajasthan have declared 12,00 hectares of forests as the Bhainodew Dakau ' Somchai ' Declaring their own set of rules for the forest.


  • The famous Chipko movement successfully resisted deforestation in several areas but has also shown that community afforestation with indigenous Species can be enormously successful.

  • Also, the Beeg Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Naudanya have Shown Adequate levels of diversified crop production without the use of chemicals.

Joint forest management

  • Joint Forest Management CJFM) programs have been launched by Various State Governments

  • Under such programs, village communities are assigned the responsibility to protect and managing nearby forests

  • The areas concerned are usually degraded or even deforested.

Project Tiger

  • Tiger is one of the Keystone species in the faunal web.

  • The authorities released that the tiger population had down to 1,827 from an Estimated 55,000 at the turn of the century.

  • Major threats .to the tiger population are poaching for trade, shrinking habitat depletion of prey-based species growing human population, etc.

  • The trade of tiger skins and the use of their bones in traditional medicines Especially in Asian countries left the tiger population on the verge of Extortion.

  • Since India and Nepal provide habitat to About 2-3 of the surviving tiger population in the world , these two nations became prime targets for poaching and trading.

  • "Project Tiger " One of the most well-publicized wildlife campaigns in the world was launched in 1973.

  • Initially, it showed Suess as the tiger population went up to 4002 in 1985 and 4,334 in 1989.

  • But in 1993 the population of the tiger had dropped to 3,600.

  • There were 39 tiger reserves in India covering an area of 32137.14 sq km.

Tiger Conservation has been viewed not only as an Effort to an Endangered species but with Equal importance as a means of preserving biotypes of sizeable magnitude. Like:-

  1. Corbett National Park in Uttrakhand
  2. Sundarbans National Park in West Bengal
  3. Sanlska Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan