Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Notes | History Chapter 4 Class 10 Notes

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Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Notes

Before the industrial revolution

  • Proto - industrialization is defined as the phase which Existed Even before factories began in England and Europe.

  • There was large-scale industrial production for an international market not based on factories.

  • In the 17th and 18th centuries, merchants from Europe moved to the Countryside, Supplying money to peasants and artisans, Requesting them to produce for an international market Merchants were restricted to Expand their production within towns because rulers granted different guilds the monopoly night to produce and trade in Specific products in the countryside poor peasants and artisans eagerly agreed so that they could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots.

  • The Protoindustrial system was thus part of a network of Commercial Exchanges Controlled by merchants.

The Coming Up of the factory

  • In the 1730s the Earliest factories in England were set up but Only in the late eighteenth century, the number of factories multiplied.

  • Cotton was the first symbiote of the new era and its production boomed in the late 19th Century.

  • Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill where costly machines were set up and all the processes was brought together under one roof and management.

The Pace of Industrial Change

  • First in Britain , the most dynamic industries were Cotton and metals Cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialization up to the 1840s, followed by the iron and steel Industry.

  • Second: The new industries found it difficult to displace traditional industries.

  • Third: The pace of change in the Traditional industries was not set by steam-powered cotton-on-metal industries, but they did not remain Entirely Stagent Either.

  • Fourth: Technological Changes Occurred Slowly James Watt improved the stern engine produced by Newcomen and patented the new Engine in 1781.

  • His industrial friend Mathew Boulton manufactured the new model. Steam engines were not used in any of the other industries until much later in the century.

Hand Labour and Stop Power

  • There was no shortage of human labour in Victorian Britain. Industrialists had no problem with Labour shortages OR High wage costs . Instead of machines industrialists required large capital investment.

  • The demand for labour was seasonal in many industries. In all such industries where production fluctuated with the season, industrialists usually preferred hand labour, Employing workers for the season.

Life of the workers

  • The workers' lives were affected by the abundance of labour in the market.

  • To get a job, workers should have Existing networks of friendship and Relations in a factory.

  • Till the mid 19th Century , It was difficult for workers to find Jobs. In the Early 19th Century, wages were increased fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introduction of new technology.

  • spinning Jenny was introduced in the woollen industry. After the 1840s building Activity intensified in the cities opening up greater Opportunities for Employment.

  • Roads were widened, new railway stations came up, railway lines were Extended , tunnels dug drainage and sewers laid rivers Embanked.

Industrialisation in the Colonies

The Age of Indian Textiles

  • In India , silk and cotton goods dominated the international market in textiles before the age of machine Industries.

  • Ano of Indian merchants and bankers were involved in this network of Export trade - financing production carrying goods and Supplying Exporters.

  • By the 1750s this network controlled by Indian merchants was breaking down The European Companies came into power - first securing a Variety of concessions from local courts , then the monopoly rights to trade.

  • The shift from the Old ports to the new ones was an indicator of the growth of colonial power European companies controlled trade through the new ports and carried in European Ships Many Old trading houses Collapsed . Those who wanted to survive had to operate within a network made by European companies.

What Happened to Weavers?

  • After the 1760s the Consolidation of the East India Company did not initially lead to a decline in textile Exports from India.

  • Before Establishing political power in Bengal and Carnatic in the 1700s and 1770s the East India Company had found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for Export.

  • After East India Company Established political power it developed a system of management and control that would Eliminate competition control costs , and Ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods it was Established by following a series of steps.

  1. By Eliminating Existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade. and Establishing more direct control over the Weaver.
  2. By preventing company weavers from dealing with other buyers.

  • The weavers were granted a loan to buy the raw materials once an Order was placed. Weavers who took loans needed to hand over the cloth they produce.

  • Weaving required the labour of the entire family, with Children and women all Engaged in different stages of the process. Earlier, Supply merchants had a very close relationship with weavers , but new gomasthas were Outsiders with no social link with the village.

  • In many places in Carnatic and Bengal, weavers set up looms in other villages where they had some family relation. In other places, weavers along with the village revolted, opposing the company and its officials.

  • Over time many weavers began refusing loans, closing down their workshops and talking to agricultural labour By the turn of the 19th Century, Cotton weavers faced a new set of problems.

Manchester comes to India

  • In 1772 Henery Patillo said that the demand for Indian textiles could never reduce since no other nation produce goods of the Same Quality.

  • But, unfortunately by the beginning of the 19th Century India witnessed a decline in textile Exports.

  • In the Early 19th Century Exports of British cotton goods increased dramatically At the End of the 18th Century imports of the cotton piece - goods were restricted To India In India cotton weavers faced two problems:

1. Their Export market collapsed

2. Local market shrank and Crluted with Manchester Exports

  • By the 1860s weavers faced a new problem. The insufficient supply of raw cotton of Good Quality Even the raw cotton Exports from India increased due to which the price increased.

  • By the end of the 19th Century, Other Craftspeople faced Yet another problem. Factories in India began production /flooding the market with machine - goods.

Factories Come up

  • In 1854 , the first cotton mill in Bombay was set up and went into production two Years Later.

  • By 1862 four more mills were set up and around the same time, Jute mills came up in Bengal.

  • The First Jute mill was set up in 1855 and Another one after seven Years in 1862 in the 1860s in north India.

  • The first cotton mill in Ahmedabad was set up . By 1874 the first spinning and weaving mill of madras began Production.

The Early Entrepreneurs

  • The History of trade started in the late 18th Century When the British in India began Exporting Opium to China and took tea from China to England. Some of the Businessmen who were involved in these trades had Visions of developing industrial Enterprises in India.

  • In Bombay / Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and damsetjee Nusscrwanjec Tata built huge industrial Empires in India.

  • Seth Hokum Chand A Marwari Set up the 1st Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917 The opportunities for investments in industries opened up and many of them set up factories.

  • But due to colonial power Indians were banned from trading with Europe in manufactured goods and had to Export mostly raw materials and food grains - raw cotton, Opium wheat and Indigo - required by the British.

Where did the Workers come from?

  • As the factories started Expanding. the demand for workers increased. Most of the workers came from the neighbouring districts in search of work. Over 50% of workers in the Bombay Cotton Industries in 1911 Came from the neighbouring district of Ratnagiri, while the mills of Kanpur got most of their textile hands from the Villages within the district of Kanpur.

  • As news of Employment spread workers travelled Great Distances in the hope of working in the mills.

  • Even after the demand for workers increased getting Jobs was difficult. The numbers seeking work were always more than the Jobs available.

The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth.

  • European managing agencies were interested in certain kinds of products such as tea and coffee They established tea and coffee plantations and invested in mining indigo and Jute These products are used only for Export purposes. in the late 19th Century Indian businessmen began setting up industries.

  • The yarn produced in Indian spinning mills was used by handloom weavers in India OR Exported to China.

  • The pattern of Industrihsation was affected by a series of Changes. When the Swadeshi movement gained support Nationalists boycotted foreign cloth. from 1900 Indian yarn Exports to China since produce from Chinese and Japanese mills flooded the Chinese market.

  • Till the End of the 1st World War, industrial Growth was slow. The war completely changed the whole scenario and Indian mills took advantage of the situation.

  • They had a very vast market to supply war needs: Jute bags, Cloth for army uniforms , tents and leather boots horse.

  • Industrial production boomed over the years and after the war, Manchester could never recapture its Old position in the Indian market.

Small scale Industries Predominate

  • Small-scale industries continued to predominate the rest of the country only a small proportion of the total industrial labour was forced to work in registered factories.

  • The rest worked in small workshops and household units. Handicraft production Expanded in the twentieth century, and handloom cloth production Expanded. This happened because of technological changes as they started adopting new technologies which Helped him improve production without Excessively increasing costs.

Market for Goods

  • When new products are formed advertisement helps people to make products appear desirable and necessary they try to shape the minds of people and create new needs.

  • Manchester industry list put labels on cloth bundles to mark the quality When buyers' song MADE IN MANCHESTER was written in bold on the label, they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth.

  • Later advertisements became a vehicle for the nationalist message of Swadeshi printing images of Indian gods and goddesses appearing on these labels.